Links to Sites and Articles for a More Inclusive Pledge

The fundamental problem with the Pledge of Allegiance is that it is not patriotic enough!

Encyclopedia- History of the Pledge and its controversies

Education World - Patriotism and Prayer: Can You Have One Without the Other? "Our job as educators is to provide for all students. In this time of crisis, that means that we offer all students -- those who are citizens and those who are not; those who believe in one God and those who do not; those whose beliefs allow them to pledge allegiance to the flag and those whose beliefs allow them to pledge allegiance only to God -- equal opportunity to express their love for, and loyalty to, their country."

Restore the Pledge (Michael Newdow's own site) "The Pledge should be a unifying experience for every citizen. Placing a religious ideal into its midst...serves no purpose except to alter a purely patriotic tradition into one that satisfies the religious bent of the majority. That is exactly what the First Amendment was written to preclude."

First Amendment Center - History of the Legal Issues. "The recitation of the Pledge of Allegiance has caused controversy that has reached the hallowed halls of the U.S. Supreme Court on several occasions, including the latest case that was dispatched by the justices in June 2004. Two major issues have arisen with respect to the recitation of the pledge in public schools: 1) whether students can be compelled to recite the pledge without infringing on their First Amendment rights and 2) whether the inclusion of the phrase "under God" - added in 1954 - violates the establishment clause."

Slate - Why we're not one nation "under God." A detailed history of the Christian effort to insert "under God" in the Pledge.

A Federated Republic or One Nation? "Many Americans originally viewed the Pledge with suspicion. Why? Because of the then-foreign concept of pledging allegiance to one nation. To Americans of the late 19th century, 'allegiance' was a feudal concept denoting subservience to a master. Americans considered themselves sovereigns, not subjects. They feared that the natural supremacy of the individual over his government, as reflected by the Declaration of Independence and guaranteed in the constitutions of the United States and of the several states, might eventually be overturned by the ideas expressed in the Pledge. They, unlike so many Americans today, understood that those who exercise the instruments of government - public servants - feel more comfortable ruling than serving."

Online Journal - Left Wing Conspiracy "We should remove the reference to God from the pledge and add the word equality or scrap the Pledge of Allegiance altogether".

Why I sit silently during the Pledge of Allegiance A thoughtful personal essay on the dis-utility of the Pledge as an activity to engage students in civics. Please note supporting research which shows that "blind patriotism is positively associated with political disengagement."

Pledge of Allegiance statutes, state by state Compiled in June 2006, there have already been changes to state laws (notably, North Carolina now requires the Pledge and Florida where the requirement that the student provide written request by parents in order to abstain was ruled unconstitutional).